Angus Frederick McDougall
M, b. 1860, d. 8 March 1879
Clarence Fredrick McDougall
M, b. 7 November 1891, d. 11 June 1945
- Clarence Fredrick McDougall was born on 7 November 1891 in Queensland.
- He was the son of Ronald McDougall and Frances Elizabeth Flora Harding.
- Clarence Fredrick McDougall began military service on 22 August 1914 in Toowoomba. Clarence enlisted in the 49th Battalion. He was a farmer of Cooyar Station and gave his father Ronald as his next of kin. He served in both Gallipoli and France and was awarded the Military Cross. He was also court martialed for being on leave with out authority whilst in France. He was found Not Guilty.
- At the age of 28 years, Clarence Fredrick McDougall married Alfreda Barton in 1920 in Queensland.
- Clarence Fredrick McDougall and Alfreda Barton appeared on the Electoral Roll in 1930 living at Wangarwah, Cooyar. Clarence was a grazier of Cooyar Station.
- Clarence Fredrick McDougall enlisted in the Australian Army on 14 August 1942 in Brisbane. Clarence was living at Cooyar at the time he enlisted and gave his next of kin as his wife Alfreda. At the time of his death he was a Leiutanent.
- He appeared on the Electoral Roll in 1943 living at Cooyar Station. Clarence was a grazier.
- Clarence Fredrick McDougall died on 11 June 1945 in Queensland at age 53. His funeral notice appeared in The Courier Mail:-" McDOUGALL The Relatives & Friends of Mrs. Freda McDougall, Barton, Mona, Sally, and Ronald McDougall of 'Wan- garwah,' Cooyar are respectfully invited to attend the service for her late beloved Husband and their father. Lieut. Clarence Frederick McDougall, M.C., late 49th Battalion, 1st A.I.F.. & 2nd H.T. Company, Enoggera (Son of the late Mr. & Mrs. Ronald McDougall, of Cooyar Station, Cooyar), which will be held In St. Francis' church of England, Cooyar, at 10 a.m. This Day (Tues day) and To-morrow (Wednesday) at 2 p.m. at the Mt. Thomnson Crema torium, Brisbane."
His ashes were scattered over rose beds in the Toowong Cemetery.
D'Arcy Leslie McDougall
M, b. 8 February 1906, d. 1973
- D'Arcy Leslie McDougall was born on 8 February 1906 in Queensland.
- He was the son of Ronald McDougall and Frances Elizabeth Flora Harding.
- D'Arcy Leslie McDougall appeared on the Electoral Roll in 1930 living at Cooyar Station. D'Arcy was a grazier.
- He enlisted in the Australian Army on 25 June 1941 in Brisbane. Darcy was living at Cooyar at the time he enlisted and gave his next of kin as his wife Dorothy. He was discharged on 14 Nov 1945 with the rank of Sapper in the 3rd Field Survey Company.
- D'Arcy Leslie McDougall died in 1973 in Queensland.
Darcy Texas McDougall
M, b. 1847, d. 19 July 1886
Fergus Henry McDougall
M, b. 1865, d. 1920
- Accidents: Other Accidents
- Fergus Henry McDougall was born in 1865 in Queensland.
- He was the son of Hon. John Frederick McDougall and Catherine Maria D'arcy.
- At the age of 26 years, Fergus Henry McDougall married Agnes Harriett MacKenzie in 1891 in Parramatta, New South Wales.
- On 4 November 1897 Fergus was made a Justice of the Peace.
- In 1901 Fergus was listed as a farmer of Goombungee in the Crow's Nest Post Office Directory.
- Fergus Henry McDougall and Agnes Harriett MacKenzie appeared on the Electoral Roll in 1903 living at Goombungee. Fergus was a farmer. He lived with an Agnus McDougall.
- Fergus Henry McDougall died in 1920 in Queensland.
- On 13 January 1920,his wife, Agnes Harriett MacKenzie died in Queensland.
- Fergus Henry McDougall died on 20 January 1920 in Redcliffe under tragic circumstances " Mr. Fergus MoDougall, who was visiting Redcliffe, left his boarding home on Wednesday last on a walk to Deception Bay, and as he did not return, a search was instituted, and his body found on Friday standing in an upright position in mud, with his pants rolled up. It is surmised that he was taking a short cut across the Bay at low tide, and sank in the mud and was drowned by the incoming tide.
Mr. McDougall was pre-deceased by his wife by only a few days. He was connected with the Lands Department for many years."
Florence Rose McDougall
F, b. 1854, d. 21 June 1934
- Florence Rose McDougall was born in 1854 in Colony of NSW. He was most likely born in Queensland which was not a separate state from NSW in 1854.
- She was the daughter of Hon. John Frederick McDougall and Catherine Maria D'arcy.
- Florence Rose McDougall was buried on 21 June 1934 in Drayton & Toowoomba Cemetery.
- Florence Rose McDougall died on 21 June 1934.
Frances Emily McDougall
F, b. 1896
M, b. circa 1865, d. 1865
Hon. John Frederick McDougall
M, b. August 1820, d. November 1896
- Hon. John Frederick McDougall was born in August 1820 in Parramatta, New South Wales. He was the second son of Andrew Louis McDougall and Louise Doyle, of Baulkham Hills, near Parramatta, N.S.W., was born in that colony in August 1820, and educated at the King's School, Parramatta. Upon the separation of Queensland from New South Wales, he was called to the Upper House in the former colony in the first instance for five years, from May 1st, 1860, and at the expiration of that time for life. During the absence of Sir A. H. Palmer in the fulfilment of his duties as administrator of the Government while Sir Anthony Musgrave was absent on leave, Mr. McDougall filled the chair of the Legislative Council. He married in July 1846 Catherine Maria, daughter of Major D'Arcy, of the 39th Regiment.
- At the age of 25 years and 11 months, Hon. John Frederick McDougall married Catherine Maria D'arcy in July 1846.
- Hon. John Frederick McDougall died in November 1896 in Queensland at age 76.
- He was buried on 12 November 1896 in Toowong Cemetery, Brisbane.
Children of Hon. John Frederick McDougall and Catherine Maria D'arcy
- Darcy Texas McDougall b. 1847, d. 19 July 1886
- Stewart Brisbane McDougall b. circa 1850, d. 1933
- William A McDougall b. 1851
- Florence Rose McDougall b. 1854, d. 21 June 1934
- Roderick McDougall b. 1856, d. January 1931
- Louisa Maria McDougall b. 1857, d. 1936
- Unnamed McDougall b. 1859
- Angus Frederick McDougall b. 1860, d. 8 March 1879
- Unnamed McDougall b. 1862
- Ronald McDougall+ b. 1864, d. 7 September 1938
- John McDougall b. circa 1865, d. 1865
- Fergus Henry McDougall+ b. 1865, d. 1920
F, b. 1887
Louisa Maria McDougall
F, b. 1857, d. 1936
Majorie Katherine McDougall
F, b. 1892
Malcolm Angus Ronald McDougall
M, b. 1889, d. 1947
Robert Bruce McDougall
M, b. 1893, d. 1942
M, b. 1856, d. January 1931
M, b. 1864, d. 7 September 1938
- Ronald McDougall was born in 1864 in Milton, Queensland. He was their sixth son, his father being the late Hon. John Frederick McDougall, a member of Queensland's first Parliament.
- He was the son of Hon. John Frederick McDougall and Catherine Maria D'arcy.
- At the age of 22 years, Ronald McDougall married Frances Elizabeth Flora Harding in 1886 in Queensland.
- On 14 December 1895 Ron was made a Justice of the Peace.
- Ronald McDougall was listed as the next of kin of Clarence Fredrick McDougall when she enlisted in the Australian Army on 22 August 1914 in Toowoomba. Clarence enlisted in the 49th Battalion. He was a farmer of Cooyar Station and gave his father Ronald as his next of kin. He served in both Gallipoli and France and was awarded the Military Cross. He was also court martialed for being on leave with out authority whilst in France. He was found Not Guilty.
- Ronald McDougall died on 7 September 1938 in Wangarwah Station, Cooyar.
- He was buried on 9 September 1938 in Toowong Cemetery.
Children of Ronald McDougall and Frances Elizabeth Flora Harding
- Unnamed McDougall b. 1886, d. 1996
- Lorne McDougall b. 1887
- Malcolm Angus Ronald McDougall b. 1889, d. 1947
- Clarence Fredrick McDougall+ b. 7 November 1891, d. 11 June 1945
- Robert Bruce McDougall b. 1893, d. 1942
- Frances Emily McDougall b. 1896
- Vernon Stanley McDougall b. 20 December 1898, d. 6 October 1958
- Agnes Flora McDougall+ b. 1905, d. 1983
- D'Arcy Leslie McDougall b. 8 February 1906, d. 1973
Stewart Brisbane McDougall
M, b. circa 1850, d. 1933
Thelma Agnes McDougall
F, b. 1894
M, b. 1859
M, b. 1862
F, b. 1886, d. 1996
Vernon Stanley McDougall
M, b. 20 December 1898, d. 6 October 1958
- Vernon Stanley McDougall was born on 20 December 1898 in Sandgate, Queensland.
- He was the son of Ronald McDougall and Frances Elizabeth Flora Harding.
- At the age of 28 years, Vernon Stanley McDougall married Maud Victoria Thorn in 1927 in Queensland.
- Vernon Stanley McDougall and Maud Victoria Thorn appeared on the Electoral Roll in 1930 living at Cooyar. Vernon was a station hand.
- Vernon Stanley McDougall enlisted in the Australian Army on 24 April 1942 in Toowoomba. Vernon was living in Toowoomba at the time and gave his next of kin as his wife Maud. He was discharged on 19 Apr 1944 with the rank of Private in the 32nd Garrison Battalion.
- Vernon Stanley McDougall died on 6 October 1958 in Queensland at age 59.
- He was buried on 8 October 1958 in Drayton & Toowoomba Cemetery.
William A McDougall
M, b. 1851
F, b. 1854, d. 11 August 1921
- Elizabeth McDowell was born in 1854 in County Sligo, Ireland. She was the daughter of John McDowall and Ann.
- At the age of 23 years, Elizabeth McDowell married William Thomas Chambers in 1877 in Queensland.
- Elizabeth McDowell and William Thomas Chambers appeared on the Electoral Roll in 1908 living at Djuan.. William was a farmer. Their daughter Elizabeth Ann and son Joseph, also a farmer most likely lived with them. Son John farmed at Crow's Nest :CR:]
- Elizabeth McDowell died on 11 August 1921 in Queensland.
- She was buried on 13 August 1921 in Cabarlah Cemetery.
Children of Elizabeth McDowell and William Thomas Chambers
Ivy Rosina Constance McDowell
F, b. 4 June 1905, d. 19 September 2000
- Charts: Descendants of Charles Eyles
- Ivy Rosina Constance McDowell was born on 4 June 1905 in New Zealand.
- She was the daughter of Robert Samuel McDowell and Bertha Elizabeth Aberhart.
- At the age of 23 years, Ivy Rosina Constance McDowell married Ernest Lyle Walker in 1929 in New Zealand.
- In 1982,her husband, Ernest Lyle Walker died in New Zealand.
- Ivy Rosina Constance McDowell died on 19 September 2000 in New Zealand at age 95.
Norman Kenneth McDowell
M, b. circa 1918, d. 9 June 1938
- Villans: Others who had brushes with the law
- Norman Kenneth McDowell was born circa 1918.
- He and Bernice Isabel Skuse were engaged.
- Norman Kenneth McDowell died on 9 June 1938 in Gomoran, Queensland.
- Bernice Isabel Skuse died from a gun shot wound to her head inflicted by Norman Kenneth McDowell on 9 October 1938 in Gomoran, Queensland, at age 20. Below are three oaths sword at the inquest:-
EDWARD IRONS SKUSE on oath states:-
I am a widower, and live with my family at Gomoran near Goombungee. Bernice Isabell Skuse was my daughter. She was 20 years and about 4 months at the time of her death. My wife died in April 1937. Since my wife's death, the girl looked after the home for me. I have 5 sons. I knew Norman Kenneth McDowell for about four years prior to his death. I know that at the time of his death he was employed by Mr McDonald, Goombungee-Haden Road. Prior to this he used to work for Raftery and Woods, who both live in the direction of my home.
My daughter and McDowell were keeping company for some time, probably getting on for twelve months. McDowell came to my home to see my daughter. As a rule he came on Sunday night and Wednesday night, not always Wednesday but one day in the week. My daughter attended dances and other amusements with McDowell, not alone with him, but in company with other friends. My daughter and McDowell became engaged somewhere about 3 months prior to her death. I did not know of their having had any quarrels prior to becoming engaged. I heard on the Sunday morning, the date of my daughter's death that she had broken off the engagement. My son Stanley told me that. He said also that 'Bernice wouldn't see Monday morning'. He said they were at the Haden dance on the night before, and that McDowell had made a threat, and had afterwards apologised to my son.
On the night of my daughter's death, she and other members of the family and a youth named Griffin were in the kitchen. After tea we remained in the kitchen for quite a while. I went to bed about 7.30 or 7.45 pm. My son and daughter and Griffin remained in the kitchen after I had left. I do not remember my sons leaving the kitchen and going to bed. After I had been in bed for some time, I was aroused by a noise. I had been asleep. When I heard the noise, I got out of bed and went towards the kitchen. There is a 10 or 12 ft verandah extending along the kitchen from the rear door of the house. At my bedroom door I was met by Griffin. I do not remember whether I spoke to him. I ran into the kitchen and found the place in darkness. I went back to my own room and lighted a lamp in my own room, and returned to the kitchen. I took the light from my own bedroom. On entering the kitchen, I saw my daughter on the floor, face downwards, six or seven foot from the kitchen door. I grabbed hold of her arm, and saw that it was too late - she was gone. I went to Mr Berge at the Sunnyside Hotel. Gomoran, and told him what had happened, he telephoned Sergeant Martin at Goombungee. I saw Sergeant Martin later, and later still I saw Const Reilly, Det Elford and Det Nesbitt. I did not see McDowell about my home that night. On the following morning, in company with Const Rielly, I saw the body of McDowell in the paddock at the rear of my home. I saw a single-barrelled shotgun lying on the ground close to McDowell's body. I saw that portion of McDowell's head was blown away.
I have known the youth Griffin only as a friend of my sons, only a couple of months. He recently arrived at my house in the company with one of my sons who had been away working, and at the time of the death of my daughter and McDowell, Griffin was staying at my place. Griffin and my daughter were not close friends. There was nothing between them more than the fact that he was staying at the place as a visitor. There was nothing that could cause McDowell to be jealous of their association. The only conclusion to which I can come is that McDowell did away with the girl through pure jealousy and without a doubt, following the shooting of the girl he went to the paddock and shot himself. I would not know McDowell's handwriting. I have never seen it. I am quite sure that there is no other person associated with my daughter's death other than McDowell.
STANLEY LAWRENCE SKUSE on oath states:
I am a single man, 23 years of age, and am at present residing with my father at Gomoran near Goombungee. Bernice Isobell Skuse is my sister. I knew Norman Kenneth McDowell. I had known him for several years.
During that time he had worked for a man named Raftery at Gomoran, also for Woods at Gomoran, and for some time immediately prior to his death he was working for McDonald, on Goombungee-Haden road. I knew that he was keeping company with my sister for some time, for about 18 months, to my knowledge. They were going together, and they broke it off, and for about 18 months before my sister's death they were keeping company. I have been away in the country working, for about 3 years, coming home occasionally. During the occasions I was at home, I saw McDowell visiting my home. He came there to see my sister. I was home about 3 weeks before my sister's death. I think it was just when I came home that I heard McDowell and my sister were engaged. John Griffin came home with me on that occasion. He was at my home on the night of 9th October 1938, and is still there.
From the time I returned home up till the date of my sister's death, I attended two dances with her. McDowell was present at both those dances. On the night prior to her death, that was a Saturday night, I attended a dance at the home of people named Smith at Boodua. I had attended a dance at Haden on the previous night that is the Friday night. My sister and McDowell were at that dance also. During the progress of the dance at Haden, my sister asked me to speak to McDowell, as he had made threats to her. She said he had told her she would not see Monday morning. I did speak to McDowell. I said I wanted an explanation as to the threats he made against Bernice, and he was very sorry for what he had said, and he apologised to me, and in my presence he told my sister he was very sorry for what he had said, and to take no notice.
McDowell was a saxophone player, and played for the different dances around about the district. He was playing the saxophone at that particular dance on the Friday night. After the dance my sister and McDowell and I left in company, and McDowell parted with us at the entrance to McDonald's place, where he was employed. My sister and I came home together. That was the last time I saw McDowell alive. On the Sunday night I was in company with my father and brother and my sister and Griffin in the kitchen of our home, after tea. My father went to bed about 7.30 pm. I was not last in the kitchen. I retired at about 8 pm. One of my brothers, Griffin, and my sister Bernice were then in the kitchen. When I left they were all sitting and talking. When I left the kitchen and went into the house to go to bed, I did not see anybody about.
After going to bed, I heard a terrible noise, which I thought sounded like a sheet of iron loose on the house. I gotout of bed, and met my father in the hallway, and went into the kitchen with him. I saw Griffin at that time. He was in the hallway too. The kitchen was in darkness then. We had a light in the kitchen, which was taken out of one of the bedrooms. In the kitchen I saw my sister lying on the floor, face downward, in a pool of blood. I lifted her head, and was satisfied that she was dead. My father then went to the Sunnyside Hotel and communicated with Sergt Martin of the Goombungee Police. I later saw Sergt Martin and Const Reilly of Goombungee, and later still saw Det Elford and Det Nesbitt. I remained there throughout the night. A search was made throughout the night for McDowell, for the reason that the Police officers returned to the house at intervals through the night. On the following morning at daybreak, I saw the body of McDowell in the paddock at the rear of my home. I was in company with Const Reilly. I saw a single barrelled shotgun grasped in McDowell's left hand. I saw that portion of his head was blown away.
I would not know McDowell's handwriting. WITNESS LOOKS AT PHOTOGRAPHS - 'A' FOR IDENTIFICATION. My sister is in three of the photographs now shown to me, one of the others is of her alone, and the other is of my mother. Since I returned home in company with Griffin, I have been in close association with Griffin. There was nothing more between him and my sister than the fact he was staying at our house. McDowell would not have any cause for jealousy through the associations of my sister and Griffin. I know that McDowell used to ride his pony to my place when he came to see my sister. I saw his pony tied to a tree in a paddock opposite our home, the morning following the shooting. From my knowledge, and from what I have learned following the shooting, I am of the opinion that the whole thing was brought about by jealousy on the part of McDowell. There was no cause for such jealousy on his part. I am satisfied that McDowell shot my sister, and afterwards went into the paddock behind our place and shot himself.
JOHN BERNARD GRIFFIN on oath states:-
I am a single man, at present residing at the Skuses' home at Gomoran, and have been residing there since 20 Sept1938. Prior to that date I was employed near Kumbia, in company with the previous witness, Stanley Skuse. I was employed by my brother at that place; Stanley Skuse was employed at the same place. I had never been to Skuse's home prior to 20 September 1938. I knew Bernice Isobell Skuse - I did not know her prior to 20 September 1938.
I knew Norman Kenneth McDowell. I had met him for the first time at the rodeo ball at Goombungee on 24September, I think it was. I met him at different times after that, at about three dances. Bernice Skuse was in attendance at those dances also. Stanley Skuse was at each of those dances. McDowell was playing the saxophone at those dances. After the dances, I went home with Stanley and Bernice Skuse in Sharp's truck, and from two of the dances McDowell rode his horse home to where he was working. One night McDowell came home with Stanley Skuse and Bernice Skuse and myself, from Haden, as far as the place where he was working. McDowell visited the girl on several occasions since I have been staying at Skuse's. He was quite friendly. There was no reason for him to be jealous of myself and the girl.
I remember 9 October 1938. On that night after tea, the girl and her father and brothers and myself were in the kitchen. They retired to bed at intervals, leaving myself and the girl in the kitchen. It’s about 8.45 pm I am sitting down in the kitchen reading a newspaper, the girl was standing alongside me, the distance between us would be approx 4 inches. She was also reading portion of the newspaper. The paper was folded into two different portions, I was reading one and she was reading the other. While we were so engaged, I heard a scream from the girl. She turned and looked facing the kitchen door, which opens on to a verandah, and then screamed. I sat dumbfounded for a moment. I heard a shot and smelled gunpowder. Bernice fell on the floor beside me. There had been a light burning in the kitchen; it was blown out by the shot. Following that, I ran outside, but could not see anybody there.
I went into the house and told the girl's father what had happened. I returned to the kitchen with the father and Stanley Skuse. A lamp was lighted in the kitchen, and I saw Bernice was lying on the floor of the kitchen, she was lying in a pool of blood. Stanley picked her up and had a look at her, I also looked at her and saw that her face was half blown away. She was dead then. I was present later when an examination was made of the kitchen wall.
I saw a number of pellet shots in the wall in a direct line with the kitchen door and the spot where Bernice was standing at the time she was shot. At the time the shooting took place, I was sitting down, and Bernice was standing a short distance away from me. I am satisfied that the shot was fired from the kitchen verandah, immediately outside the kitchen door. The person who fired the shot must have moved away quickly; otherwise I would have seen the person when I went out. I later saw the Goombungee Police, also Det Elford and Det Nesbitt.
I remained about the house till daylight. I never saw the body of McDowell. I think the shooting was the result of jealousy on the part of McDowell. If he was jealous of me, he had no reason to be jealous of my association with the girl. I am satisfied that it was McDowell who shot Bernice Skuse, and from what I have learned, I am satisfied that he afterwards went into the paddock at the rear of the place and shot himself.
The following is a copy of the suicide note left by McDowell.
To all my friends who thought I was happy. Dear friends,
No doubt you will think what I have done is an awful (sic) thing. But there isn't anyone in this world who realizes what Bernice meant to me. If we weren't engaged and this happened it would be different but no-one understands just what an Orphan has to go through before he or she gets this far. Lots of people will say I'm insane but that's not the case at all. I just can't go on living this life and thinking of Bernice in someone's arms. If Bernice had been let go her own way it would have been different but she always took notice of others. I have nothing and no one in the world to share my----or else perhaps I could go to them and forget. No one realizes what it's like to face a world like this without parents and I've been through Hell on Earth since a baby. I thought that when I had to work for my living that this would change but instead I still continue (just worry and disappointment) so I have decided that this world holds nothing for me. I'd be prepared to battle on and work day and night if I only had Bernice to care for. I am sorry for Ted and all his children and I realize what Bernice means to him and his children but I just can't go alone. I'd be happy if I thought Bernice and I would be together forever so I'm going to take her with me if it’s possible.
Hope you will all understand this and remember I've been absolutely driven to this. Well, I will say goodbye to you all now and I hope that none of you will blame either of us because it is just Fate. I'd love to be buried somewhere near Bernice but of course I won't be able to argue where I'm put. Sell all my things and that will payfor my expense, if I win anything in the casket give it to Ted Skuse for his family.
Again Adieu. If only I could have Bernice and be happy, just someone to have an interest in and someone to care for. I loved Bernice more than words can say. I'd like this letter to be printed so as everyone will see what life had done for me. Goodbye.
Robert Samuel McDowell
M, b. 1879, d. 1938
- Charts: Descendants of Charles Eyles
F, b. circa 1781
- Charts: Descendants of Donald Stuart.
- Janet McEdward was born circa 1781 in Inverness, Scotland.
- Janet McEdward married Donald Stuart on 5 December 1797 in Inverness, Scotland.
- Janet McEdward and Donald Stuart appeared on the census of 7 June 1841 in Kingussie, Inverness, Scotland. Donald was 70 years old, independent and was born in Inverness Shire. Janet was 60 also born Inverness Shire. Their 8 year old grandson Evan McPherson was living with them. He was also born in Inverness Shire.
- Janet McEdward appeared on the census of 30 March 1851 in Kingussue. Janet is shown as a 70 year old. She is living with lodgers Isabella McPherson aged 60, and James McPherson aged 25 (a gamekeeper) both born in Alvie, Inverness. A Janet McPherson aged 35 (a houseservant) was visiting the household. Isabella Ritchie, a 12 year old scholar born in Ahole Parish, Path Shire was also living there. She was Janet's granddaughter.
Children of Janet McEdward and Donald Stuart
- Duncan Stuart b. 25 October 1798
- William Stuart b. 21 March 1800
- Angus Stuart b. 11 December 1802
- Mary Stuart+ b. 8 June 1804, d. 23 December 1877
- John Stuart b. 22 June 1806
- Grace Stuart b. 29 May 1808
- James Stuart b. 7 May 1810
- Isabel Stuart b. 27 August 1812
- George Stuart b. June 1814
- Jean Stuart+ b. 1 July 1816
- Donald Stuart b. 24 September 1818
Anastasia Ellen McErlean
F, b. 1905, d. 1918
Bridget Josephine McErlean
F, b. 1891, d. 1945